Anup Ghimire

Microorganisms can be used to degrade waste pollutants in bio-augmentation process. Bio- augmentation is a sustainable approach to pollutant remediation. Bio-augmentation is a mimic of natural process, it uses less energy, it releases less air pollutant and it helps to destroy the contaminants permanently. Effectiveness and affordability of bio augmentation, a powerful remediation measure, has been proved in the past few decades.

Pre-adapted native microbes or genetically modified microorganisms have been used in bio augmentation for pollution biodegradation. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, flavobacterium, Sphingobium, Alcaligens, Achromobacter, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Bacillus and Fungal species such as Absidia, Achremonium, Aspergillus, Verticillium, Pencillium and Mucor have been
applied to degrade pollutants.

Biodegradation of compounds such as nitrophenols, chlorinated solvents, methyl tert-butyl ether, oil, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides such as atrazine, dicamba and carbofuran has been carried out with microorganisms induced bio-augmentation.  Effective bio augmentation technologies include cell culture, activated soil bio-augmentation, gene bio augmentation and phytoremediation.

Factors such as contaminant concentrations, site hydro-geochemical conditions, and competition with indigenous microorganisms, in situ growth, transport and decay of microbes affect the amount of microorganisms needed for remediation which ultimately affects the cost and performance associated with bio augmentation. Temperature, moisture, pH, organic matter, aeration, nutrient content and soil type are determining factors for bio-augmentation.


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